Dynamic Evolution of 2D Layers Within Perovskite Nanocrystals via Salt Pair Extraction and Reinsertion

Lance M. Wheeler, Nicholas C. Anderson, Taylor S. Bliss, Matthew P. Hautzinger, Nathan R. Neale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus Citations


Metal halide perovskite (MHP) semiconductors exhibit unprecedented optoelectronic properties coupled with low formation energies that enable scalable, cost-efficient solution processing. The low formation energies additionally facilitate dynamic transformation of the chemical composition and crystal structure of the MHP material. In this work, we show that CsBr salt is selectively extracted from CsPbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs) to yield PbBr2 NCs. The PbBr2 NCs are then exposed to different glacial acetic acid ABr salt solutions to generate a variety of emissive compounds with the generic structure A′2An-1PbnBr3n-1X′2, where A = cesium (Cs+), methylammonium (MA+), formamidinium (FA+); A′ = A or H+; X′ = Br- or acetate (CH3COO-); and n is the number of lead halide layers, where n = 1, 2, 3,..∞. We systematically vary the ratios of PbBr2/ABr/CH3COOH and show that certain ratios result in isolable single-phase APbBr3 NCs - an effective A-site cation exchange from the parent CsPbBr3 NCs. Importantly, time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy shows the dynamic evolution of many additional species as evidenced by blue-shifted emission peaks from 2.85-2.49 eV for MA+-based structures. We assign these species to n = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 quasi-two-dimensional network (2DN) sheets, in which CH3COO- anions and Br- anions compete for the c-axis X′ sites separating haloplumbate(II) layers within the A′2An-1PbnBr3n-1X′2 NCs. Finally, we demonstrate the degree of CH3COO- incorporation, and thus the 2DN layer thickness and PL energy, is controlled in the early reaction times by kinetic factors. After a longer time (3 h), thermodynamic forces dictated by Le Chatelier's principle tune the structure in A′2An-1PbnBr3n-1X′2 NCs from exclusively n = 1 to n = ∞ depending on the PbBr2/ABr/CH3COOH ratio.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)14029-14038
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Issue number25
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-70903


  • cation exchange
  • layered perovskite
  • perovskite nanocrystal
  • quantum confinement
  • solar-photochemistry
  • two-dimensional network
  • two-dimensional semiconductors


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