Effect of Anode Porosity and Temperature on the Performance and Lithium Plating During Fast‐Charging of Lithium‐Ion Cells

David Robertson, LeRoy Flores, Alison Dunlop, Stephen Trask, Francois Usseglio-Viretta, Andrew Colclasure, Zhenzhen Yang, Ira Bloom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus Citations

Abstract

Twenty-four single-layer ≈32 mAh pouch cells are tested to determine the effect of electrode porosity on lithium plating. Twelve cells contain a graphite electrode that is 26% porous, and 47% for the other twelve. The cells are cycled using a 6-C charge and a C/2 discharge protocol at temperatures in the range of 20-50 °C. A macro-homogeneous electrochemical model and microstructure analysis tool set are used to help interpret experimental observations for the effect of anode porosity and ambient temperature on fast-charging performance. Comparison between the two also highlights gaps in current theoretical understanding that need to be addressed. In post-test examination, lithium plating is seen in all cells, regardless of porosity. Elevated temperature is shown to reduce the amount of lithium plating and improve initial fast-charge capacity, but also changes the rate of other, less well-understood degradation mechanisms. Apparent kinetic rate laws, At + Bt1/2, where A and B are constants, can be fit to most of the capacity loss and resistance increase data. The relative magnitudes of A and B change with temperature and porosity. The capacity loss data at 50 °C from the high-porosity cells are fit by a logistics rate law.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2000666
Number of pages14
JournalEnergy Technology
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-77281

Keywords

  • electrode porosity
  • fast charging
  • lithium-ion cells
  • performance degradation

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