Effect of Halide-Modified Model Carbon Supports on Catalyst Stability

Kevin N. Wood, Svitlana Pylypenko, Tim S. Olson, Arrelaine A. Dameron, Kevin O'Neill, Steven T. Christensen, Huyen N. Dinh, Thomas Gennett, Ryan O'Hayre

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus Citations


Modification of physiochemical and structural properties of carbon-based materials through targeted functionalization is a useful way to improve the properties and performance of such catalyst materials. This work explores the incorporation of dopants, including nitrogen, iodine, and fluorine, into the carbon structure of highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and its potential benefits on the stability of PtRu catalyst nanoparticles. Evaluation of the changes in the catalyst nanoparticle coverage and size as a function of implantation parameters reveals that carbon supports functionalized with a combination of nitrogen and fluorine provide the most beneficial interactions, resulting in suppressed particle coarsening and dissolution. Benefits of a carefully tuned support system modified with fluorine and nitrogen surpass those obtained with nitrogen (no fluorine) modification. Ion implantation of iodine into HOPG results in a consistent amount of structural damage to the carbon matrix, regardless of dose. For this modification, improvements in stability are similar to nitrogen modification; however, the benefit is only observed at higher dose conditions. This indicates that a mechanism different than the one associated with nitrogen may be responsible for the improved durability.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)6728-6734
Number of pages7
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2012

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5200-57804


  • carbon support
  • direct methanol fuel cell
  • durability
  • electrocatalyst
  • fluorine and iodine functionalization
  • nitrogen


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