Effects of Torrefaction Temperature on Pyrolysis Vapor Products of Woody and Herbaceous Feedstocks

Anne Starace, Bob Evans, Daniel Carpenter, Dong Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus Citations


A variety of hardwood, softwood, and herbaceous feedstocks (oak, southern yellow pine mix, loblolly pine, pinyon-juniper mix, and switchgrass) were each torrefied at 200, 250, and 300 degrees C. Each of the feedstocks was pyrolyzed and the resulting vapors were analyzed with a molecular beam mass spectrometer (py-MBMS). Compositional analysis was used to measure the total lignin content of three of the feedstocks (southern yellow pine, softwood; oak, hardwood; and switchgrass, herbaceous) before and after torrefaction at 300 degrees C, and large differences in the fraction of lignin lost during torrefaction were found between feedstocks, with oak having the largest decrease in lignin during torrefaction and switchgrass having the least. It is hypothesized that these differences in the thermal degradation are due to, in part, the different ratios of S, G, and H lignins in the feedstocks. Additionally, the torrefaction of kraft lignin was studied using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)5677-5683
Number of pages7
JournalEnergy and Fuels
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5100-65847


  • biomass
  • py-mbms
  • pyroylsis
  • torrefaction


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