Efficiency of Charge-Transfer Doping in Organic Semiconductors Probed with Quantitative Microwave and Direct-Current Conductance

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30 Scopus Citations

Abstract

Although molecular charge-transfer doping is widely used to manipulate carrier density in organic semiconductors, only a small fraction of charge carriers typically escape the Coulomb potential of dopant counterions to contribute to electrical conductivity. Here, we utilize microwave and direct-current (DC) measurements of electrical conductivity to demonstrate that a high percentage of charge carriers in redox-doped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (s-SWCNT) networks is delocalized as a free carrier density in the -electron system (estimated as >46% at high doping densities). The microwave and four-point probe conductivities of hole-doped s-SWCNT films quantitatively match over almost 4 orders of magnitude in conductance, indicating that both measurements are dominated by the same population of delocalized carriers. We address the relevance of this surprising one-to-one correspondence by discussing the degree to which local environmental parameters (e.g., tube-tube junctions, Coulombic stabilization, and local bonding environment) may impact the relative magnitudes of each transport measurement.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)6864-6870
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Volume9
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-72779

Keywords

  • solar-photochemistry
  • USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)

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