Electric Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle Management

Ahmad Pesaran, Lauren Roman, John Kincaide

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


There is no question that electric vehicles (EVs), which are key for addressing climate change impacts from the transportation sector, are quickly gaining popularity and availability. With limits and other challenges related to the supply of critical battery minerals, maximizing the use of EV batteries and ensuring recovery of battery minerals is imperative. Therefore, proper end-of-life-cycle management (reuse and recycling) of these batteries must be part of the EV ecosystem from the perspective of both the supply chain and environmental footprint. Second use of batteries for energy storage systems extends the initial life of these resources and provides a buffer until economical material recovery facilities are in place. Although there are multiple pathways to recycling and recovery of materials, new recovery technologies are moving toward commercially available hydrometallurgy and promising direct recycling, which analysis has shown has the lowest overall carbon footprint. Strategically locating these plants close to battery collection further reduces transportation and thus recycling and recovering costs. Proper life cycle management could alleviate future lithium-ion battery materials supply chains for EVs. Governments and other stakeholders around the world have started initiatives and proposed regulations to address the challenges associated with life cycle management of EV lithium batteries. Finally, as manufacturers are increasingly faced with the likelihood of such extensive regulatory requirements, attention should be given to new designs, sales, and service models that can reduce life cycle management costs.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages54
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5700-84520


  • battery
  • electric vehicle
  • EV
  • Li-ion
  • life cycle
  • lithium-ion
  • recycling
  • reuse
  • second life
  • second use


Dive into the research topics of 'Electric Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle Management'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this