Electric Vehicles Charging Time Constrained Deliverable Provision of Secondary Frequency Regulation

Jinning Wang, Fangxing Li, Xin Fang, Wenbo Wang, Hantao Cui, Qiwei Zhang, Buxin She

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aggregation of electric vehicles (EVs) is a promising technique for providing secondary frequency regulation (SFR) in highly renewable energy-penetrated power systems. Equipped with energy storage devices, EV aggregation can provide reliable SFR. However, the main challenge is to guarantee reliable intra-interval SFR capacities and inter-interval delivery following the automatic generation control (AGC) signal. Furthermore, aggregated EV SFR provision will be further complicated by the EV charging time anxiety because SFR provision might extend EV's charging time. This paper proposes a deliverable EV SFR provision with a charging-time-constrained control strategy. First, a charging-time-constrained EV aggregation is proposed to address the uncertainty of EV capacity based on the state-space model considering the charging-time restriction of EV owners. Second, a real-time economic dispatch and time domain simulation (RTED-TDS) cosimulation framework is proposed to verify financial results and the dynamic performance of the EV SFR provision. Last, the proposed charging time-constrained EV aggregation is validated on the IEEE 39-bus system. The results demonstrate that with charging time-constrained EV aggregation, the dynamic performance of the system can be improved with a marginal increase in total cost. More importantly, the charging time constraint can be respected in the proposed SFR provision of the EV aggregation.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A40-87549


  • charging time anxiety
  • co-simulation
  • electric vehicle aggregation
  • secondary frequency regulation
  • state-space modeling


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