Electrifying Transit: A Guidebook for Implementing Battery Electric Buses

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


This guidebook is organized to give transit decision-makers and relevant stakeholders an overview of BEB facts, data, and considerations important for planning their implementation in a variety of jurisdictions. First, the benefits and barriers for BEB are identified. Second, BEB basics in terms of the major components, including a) the bus, b) the battery, and c) the numerous charging options. BEB introduces new, high demand loads as the buses are charging and thus have a number of interactions with the electricity grid and the utility, which are explored third. Operation and maintenance of BEBs are considered fourth as BEBs should not be operated and maintained in the same approach as diesel buses. Fifth, the costs of BEB prices are summarized – and the choices of bus and battery are explored in how they impact BEB prices. Funding and financing options that support BEBs and their charging stations are also explored. Safety is a key consideration for BEBs and the guidebook touches upon codes and standards, hazards, and emergencies. The final section examines project execution, bringing together information from all the other sections so that long-term planning, route analysis, and fleet and infrastructure planning can be considered in the preparation of BEB deployment, and then deployment can be evaluated on a regular basis. A final conclusion revisits the information covered in the guidebook.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages71
StatePublished - 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-7A40-76932


  • battery electric bus
  • case study
  • deployment
  • electric vehicles
  • emerging technologies
  • EV
  • Greening the Grid
  • guidebook
  • USAID-NREL Partnership


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