Electrochemical Approaches to PV Busbar Application

Joel Pankow

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Busbars are an integral component of any thin-film photovoltaic module and must be easy and quick to apply by PV manufacturers, as well as provide long-term reliability in deployed modules. Potential reliability issues include loss of adhesion and delamination, chemical instability under current collection conditions (electromigration or corrosion), compatibility of material and applicationmethod with subsequent encapsulation steps. Several new and novel busbar materials and application methods have been explored, including adhering metal busbars with various one- and two-part conductive epoxies or conductive adhesive films, ultrasonic bonding of metal busbar strips, and bonding of busbar strips using low-temperature solders. The most promising approach to date has been the directapplication of metal busbars via various electrochemical techniques, which offers a variety of distinct advantages.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages5
StatePublished - 2005
Event2004 DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Review Meeting - Denver, Colorado
Duration: 25 Oct 200428 Oct 2004


Conference2004 DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Review Meeting
CityDenver, Colorado

Bibliographical note

Presented at the 2004 DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Review Meeting, 25-28 October 2004, Denver, Colorado. Also included in the proceedings available on CD-ROM (DOE/GO-102005-2067; NREL/CD-520-37140)

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-520-37060


  • anode pen
  • busbar
  • electrochemical instrumentation
  • electromigration
  • integral component
  • long-term reliability
  • manufacturer
  • module
  • plating efficiencies
  • PV
  • thin films


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