Electrodeposition of Indium directly on Silicon

Anica Neumann, Olivia Schneble, Emily Warren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus Citations


Direct electrodeposition of indium onto silicon paves the way for advances in microelectronics, photovoltaics, and optoelectronics. Indium is generally electrodeposited onto silicon utilizing a physically or thermally deposited metallic seed layer. Eliminating this layer poses benefits in microelectronics by reducing resistive interfaces and in vapor-liquid-solid conversion to III-V material by allowing direct contact to the single-crystal silicon substrate for epitaxial conversion. We investigated conditions to directly electrodeposit indium onto n-type Si(100). We show that a two-step galvanostatic plating at low temperatures can consistently produce smooth, continuous films of indium over large areas, in bump morphologies, and conformally into inverted pyramids.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number012503
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Electrochemical Society ("ECS"). Published on behalf of ECS by IOP Publishing Limited.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-78682


  • electrodeposition
  • indium
  • photovoltaic
  • PV
  • silicon
  • templated vapor-liquid-solid growth


Dive into the research topics of 'Electrodeposition of Indium directly on Silicon'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this