Electronic Impurity Doping of a 2D Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite by Bi and Sn: Article No. 023010

Haipeng Lu, Gabrielle Koknat, Yi Yao, Ji Hao, XiXi Qin, Chuanxiao Xiao, Ruyi Song, Florian Merz, Markus Rampp, Sebastian Kokott, Christian Carbogno, Tianyang Li, Glenn Teeter, Matthias Scheffler, Joseph Berry, David Mitzi, Jeffrey Blackburn, Volker Blum, Matthew Beard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Control over conductivity and carrier type (electrons and holes) defines semiconductors. A primary approach to target carrier concentrations involves introducing a small population of aliovalent impurity dopant atoms. In a combined synthetic and computational study, we assess impurity doping by introducing Bi and Sn into the prototype 2D Ruddlesden-Popper hybrid perovskite phenylethylammonium lead iodide (PEA2PbI4). Experimentally, we demonstrate that Bi and Sn can achieve n- and p-type doping, respectively, but the doping efficiency is low. Simulations show that Bi introduces a deep defect energy level (~0.5 eV below the conduction band minimum) that contributes to the low doping efficiency, but, to reproduce the low doping efficiency observed experimentally, an acceptor level must also be present that limits n-type doping. Experiments find that Sn achieves p-dopant behavior and simulations suggest that this occurs through the additional oxidation of Sn defects. We also study how substitutional Bi incorporation can be controlled by tuning the electrochemical environment during synthesis. First-principles impurity doping simulations can be challenging; typical dopant concentrations constitute less than 0.01% of the atoms, necessitating large supercells, while a high level of theory is needed to capture the electronic levels. We demonstrate simulations of complex defect-containing unit cells that include up to 3383 atoms, employing spin-orbit coupled hybrid density functional theory. While p- and n-type behavior can be achieved with Sn and Bi, simulations and experiments provide concrete directions where future efforts must be focused to achieve higher doping efficiency.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages17
JournalPRX Energy
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-82166


  • 2D perovskite
  • doping
  • metal halide perovskite
  • super cells


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