Empirical Investigations of the Opportunity Limits of Automatic Residential Electric Load Shaping: Preprint

Robert Cruickshank, Brian Hodge, Anthony Florita, Gregor Henze, Rajagopalan Balaji

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Residential electric load shaping is often modeled as infrequent, utility-initiated, short-duration deferral of peak demand through direct load control. In contrast, modeled herein is the potential for frequent, transactive, intraday, consumer-configurable load shaping for storage-capable thermostatically controlled electric loads (TCLs), including refrigerators, freezers, and hot water heaters. Unique to this study are 28 months of 15-minute-interval observations of usage in 101 homes in the Pacific Northwest United States that specify exact start, duration, and usage patterns of approximately 25 submetered loads per home. The magnitudes of the load shift from voluntarily-participating TCL appliances are aggregated to form hourly upper and lower load-shaping limits for the coordination of electrical generation, transmission, distribution, storage, and demand. Empirical data are statistically analyzed to define metrics that help quantify load-shaping opportunities.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 2017
EventIEEE Green Technologies Conference - Denver, Colorado
Duration: 29 Mar 201731 Mar 2017


ConferenceIEEE Green Technologies Conference
CityDenver, Colorado

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-67800


  • demand response
  • load management
  • load modeling
  • price response
  • transactive energy


Dive into the research topics of 'Empirical Investigations of the Opportunity Limits of Automatic Residential Electric Load Shaping: Preprint'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this