Enabling Extreme Fast-Charging: Challenges at the Cathode and Mitigation Strategies

Tanvir Tanim, Peter Weddle, Zhenzhen Yang, Andrew Colclasure, Harry Charalambous, Donal Finegan, Yanying Lu, Molleigh Preefer, Sangwook Kim, Jeffery Allen, Francois Usseglio-Viretta, Parameswara Chinnam, Ira Bloom, Eric Dufek, Kandler Smith, Guoying Chen, Kamilla Wiaderek, Johanna Nelson Weker, Yang Ren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus Citations


Charging lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) in 10 to 15 min via extreme fast-charging (XFC) is important for the widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). Lately, the battery research community has focused on identifying XFC bottlenecks and determining novel design solutions. Like other LiB components, cathodes can present XFC bottlenecks, especially when considering long-term battery life. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive understanding of how XFC conditions degrade LiB cathodes. The present article reviews relevant cathode-focused studies and summarizes the current understanding regarding cathode performance and aging issues under XFC conditions. Dominant aging modes and mechanisms are identified at different length-scales with electrochemical correlations for LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC)-based cathodes. A range of electrochemical techniques and models provide key insights into cathode performance and life issues. A suite of multimodal and multiscale microscopy and X-ray techniques is surveyed to quantify chemical, structural, and crystallographic NMC-cathode degradation. Cathode cycle-life is scaled to equivalent EV miles to illustrate how cathode degradation translates to real-world scenarios and quantifies cathode-related bottlenecks that hinder XFC adoption. Finally, the article discusses several cathode cycle-life aging mitigation strategies with example case studies and identifies remaining challenges.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2202795
Number of pages25
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number46
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-81577


  • cathode degradation
  • electric vehicles
  • extreme fast charging
  • lithium-ion batteries


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