Enabling Fast Charging - Infrastructure and Economic Considerations

Matthew Keyser, Cory Kreutzer, Anthony Markel, Ahmad Pesaran, Andrew Meintz, Andrew Burnham, Thomas Stephens, Ram Vijayagopal, Keith Hardy, Shabbir Ahmed, Ira Bloom, Andrew Jansen, Eric Dufek, James Francfort, Christopher Michelbacher, Richard Carlson, Fernando Dias, Manish Mohanpurkar, Don Scoffield, Matthew ShirkRob Hovsapian, Tanvir Tanim, Jiucai Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

138 Scopus Citations

Abstract

The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehicle service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. This discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging at 400 kW and above. In so doing, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)237-249
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume367
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-68767

Keywords

  • Battery electric vehicles
  • Demand charges
  • Economics
  • Electric vehicle infrastructure
  • Extreme fast charging (XFC)
  • Total cost of ownership

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