Energy Model to Evaluate Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Air Source Heat Pumps: Preprint

Conrado Ermel, Marcus Bianchi, Paulo Schneider

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Full decarbonization in buildings requires the replacement of combustion appliances with electric ones, and air source heat pumps (ASHP) are a candidate alternative. However, technical limitations, such as the efficiency decrease when operating in cold weather, limit their adoption in the global heating market. Among several options to improve ASHP efficiency operating in colder climates, thermal energy storage (TES) has been considered, as it may provide heating when it is cold and shift ASHP operation to times when the weather is warmer. It may also take advantage of time of use electricity rates and support defrosting when necessary. The evaluation of ASHP-TES systems, however, is still limited because traditional metrics do not capture their full economic and environmental benefits. In this work, a python framework is presented to model the ASHP with and without the presence of TES. Metrics are proposed to analyze the system performance in terms of costs, equivalent CO2 emission, and efficiency metrics to evaluate and compare alternative systems. Model validation against experimental data obtained for a commercial heat pump is provided, as well as an application example using Denver, Colorado, to highlight the model capabilities.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages13
StatePublished - 2023
Event2022 Buildings XV International Conference - Clearwater Beach, Florida
Duration: 5 Dec 20228 Dec 2022


Conference2022 Buildings XV International Conference
CityClearwater Beach, Florida

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5500-82601


  • cold climate
  • heat pump
  • Python
  • thermal energy storage


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