Enhancing Lithium-Ion Battery Aging Simulations: Coupling a High-Resolution, 3D, Grain-Scale Electromechanical Model to a Single-Particle Model

Research output: NRELPresentation


One of the main goals in modeling lithium-ion batteries is to improve/predict longevity and resilience of new chemistries. Unfortunately, this requires simulation of thousands of charge/discharge cycles, which can be rather time consuming depending on the fidelity of the simulation. The purpose of this talk is to discuss a new modeling framework that couples a high-resolution, continuous damage model (CDM) to a single particle model (SPM) resulting in a good combination of speed and fidelity. In previous work, a 3D, continuum-level chemo-mechanical model was developed to investigate cracking within a single cathode particle comprised of hundreds to thousands of randomly oriented grains. The CDM predicted that particle fracture is primarily due to non-ideal grain interactions with slight dependence on high-rate charge demands. Essentially, when neighboring grains were misaligned, they expanded different rates relative to one another leading to high stresses and ultimately the formation of intraparticle cracks. The model predicted that small particles with large grains develop significantly less damage than larger particles with small grains. Finally, the model predicted most of the chemo-mechanical damage accumulates in the first charge after formation. This chemo-mechanical "damage saturation" effect indicated that initial particle fracture occurs within the first few cycles, while long-term cathode degradation is not solely chemo-mechanically induced. This led to a need for simulating fatigue-like mechanism that degrade the battery over longer time scales. In order to reach the time scales, need to resolve fatigue-like degradation, the CDM needs to be complemented by a faster model. Therefore, recent efforts have been focused on using results from the CDM to inform parameters within the SPM. These parameters are homogenization factors that are associated with diffusion, particle radius, and/or exchange current density. By coupling the CDM to the SPM, the aging simulation is broken up into two domains: short-term and long-term degradation. The short-term degradation occurs over a single cycle and is handled by the CDM due of its high fidelity, but relatively expensive computational cost. Such mechanism include break-in crack caused by mismatches in grain orientation. The long-term degradation occurs over tens of cycles and is handled by the SPM due it's computational efficiency. Most of the fatigue-like mechanism fall into this category. The eventual goal of this modeling framework is to upscale to a psudo-2D model allowing for full electrode simulation, which are informed by high-fidelity grain-scale simulations.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages26
StatePublished - 2022

Publication series

NamePresented at the 242nd Electrochemical Society Meeting, 9-13 October 2022, Atlanta, Georgia

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-2C00-83439


  • electrochemistry
  • FEniCS
  • Li-ion batteries
  • mechanics
  • modeling


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