Enhancing ..phi..-Sensitivity of Ignition Delay Times through Dilution of Fuel-Air Mixture

Jaeyoung Cho, Jon Luecke, Mohammad J. Rahimi, Yeonjoon Kim, Bradley T. Zigler, Seonah Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The high ϕ-sensitivity (η) of ignition delay time (τIDT) is one of the desirable fuel properties for the high-load extension of advanced compression ignition engine. Recent studies revealed the effectiveness of a high dilution rate (xD) for enhancing η at the engine-relevant conditions. This study aims to quantify the effect of dilution on the η of isooctane using a combined experiment-simulation approach. The ignition delay of the isooctane/air mixture was measured with an Advanced Fuel Ignition Delay Analyzer (AFIDA) over the temperature range of 623 – 923 K at 10 bar pressure with global ϕ = 0.3 – 0.6, with and without 28.6% of additional N2 dilution. For precise evaluation of experimental η, the facility effect of the AFIDA experiment was characterized with three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) simulation. The temperature in the combustion chamber from 3-D CFD indicated a substantial temporal dependency, varying up to ∼52 K by charge-cooling of fuel injection and heat transfer from the wall. We introduced the dimensionless number θ(t) for characterizing the temporal profile of chamber temperature. Consideration of the facility effect using θ(t) resulted in better agreement between the experimental η and zero-dimensional (0-D) kinetics simulation. The refined η were then further utilized to quantify the effectiveness of dilution to η. The extent of η enhancement with dilution strategy was maximized at the low-temperature chemistry regime, increasing η by 77% with a 28.6% dilution rate. Further analysis on the dilution effect was carried out using 0-D kinetics simulation, revealing the critical dimensionless numbers relevant to the effectiveness of dilution to η enhancement. This study is the first experiment-simulation combined research to quantify the effect of dilution on η, facilitating the kinetics model refinement for better reproduction of ϕ-sensitivity.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)4939-4947
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-81846


  • Advanced fuel ignition delay analyzer
  • Dilution
  • Ignition delay
  • Iso-octane
  • ϕ-sensitivity


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