Enhancing Power System Operational Flexibility with Flexible Ramping Products: A Review

Qin Wang, Brian Hodge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

200 Scopus Citations


With the increased variability and uncertainty of net load induced from high penetrations of renewable energy resources and more flexible interchange schedules, power systems are facing great operational challenges in maintaining balance. Among these, the scarcity of ramp capability is an important culprit of power balance violations and high scarcity prices. To address this issue, marketbased flexible ramping products (FRPs) have been proposed in the industry to improve the availability of ramp capacity. This paper presents an in-depth review of the modeling and implementation of FRPs. The major motivation is that although FRPs are widely discussed in the literature, it is still unclear to many that how they can be incorporated into a co-optimization framework that includes energy and ancillary services. The concept and a definition of power system operational flexibility as well as the needs for FRPs are introduced. The industrial practices of implementing FRPs under different market structures are presented. Market operation issues and future research topics are also discussed. This paper can provide researchers and power engineers with further insights into the state of the art, technical barriers, and potential directions for FRPs.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number7779055
Pages (from-to)1652-1664
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-67471


  • Electricity Market Operations
  • Flexible Ramping Product (FRP)
  • Operational Flexibility
  • Smart Grid
  • Uncertainty
  • Variability
  • Variable Generation


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