EUI Benchmarks for Net-Zero Energy Buildings in India

Gaurav Vakil, Sreejith Jayaram, Jaydeep Bhadra, Yashima Jain, Prasad Vaidya, Vismaya Paralkar, Matthew Dahlhausen

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


In our study we present EUI benchmarks for NZEBs for six building types across residential and non-residential typologies and for India's five climate zones. This approach is similar to the simulation-based benchmarks used by the B3 program in Minnesota, the Cal-Arch methodology in California, and the US Solar Decathlon approach, which combine simulations with actual building data. Of the six building types we explore one in detail with a range of operation scenarios, specifically narrowing down the EUI benchmarks for mixed-mode building operation and for variable temperature set-points as prescribed in the National Building Code of India.The contribution of this work is to provide rigorous end-use level EUI benchmarks for six building types, and to describe a method for simulation-based EUI benchmarks for mixed-mode operation with variable setpoints to highlight the difference between the standard approach used for the five building types and the On-Site Construction Worker Housing which additionally has the mixed-mode variable setpoint approach.On-Site Construction Worker Housings are typically poorly constructed temporary structures, without adequate thermal comfort, It is critical to provide adequate thermal comfort to protect people from the warming effects of climate change, and to discover super efficient and cost-effective ways to do so.The methodology used for the On-Site Construction Worker Housing (CWH) results in an 80% acceptability according to the India Model for Adaptive Comfort in the National Building Code of India. EUIs of all six buildings are 60% lower than the minimum compliance with India's Energy Conservation Building Codes, providing benchmarks for efficiency levels. The end-use level EUI benchmarks are now provided to over 1800 Solar Decathlon India participants so that they can compare the performance of their NZEB designs.In particular, the CWH results provide an insight into the importance of the mixed-mode operation with variable temperature set-points. The results from the simulation study show that for an NZEB target, the EUI with standard thermal comfort model and without mixed operation is 58.26 kWh/m2*year, while that with the variable set-points of the adaptive model with mixed mode operation is 24.23 kWh/m2*year. This is a 58% reduction in EUI. Given that many building types including residential, and non-residential operate in mixed mode, it is important to take this work further to develop mixed-mode operation NZEB benchmarks so that the carbon intensity of these buildings could be lower than the standard thermal comfort model approach.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2023
EventBuilding Simulation 2023: 18th Conference of IBPSA - Shanghai, China
Duration: 4 Sep 20236 Sep 2023


ConferenceBuilding Simulation 2023: 18th Conference of IBPSA
CityShanghai, China

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5500-89350


  • benchmarking
  • energy end-use
  • energy use intensity
  • net-zero-energy buildings
  • simulations


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