Evaluation of Envelope Energy in a High-Performance Manufactured Home in California

Robert Hendron, James Haile, Stephen Becker, Stephen Chally, Conor Dennehy, Conor Dennehy (NREL Technical Monitor)

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


There are important applications for a robust energy model for new construction manufactured homes that can characterize the individual performance of the opaque wall and ceiling components of the building envelope. The efficacy of different insulation materials can be assessed with the confidence that modeled performance will closely predict installed performance. This study uses careful calibration of a standard energy model with a short-term co-heating test in an installed manufactured home to de-aggregate the contributions of planar wall sections from overall building envelope thermal resistance. The methodology takes into account thermal mass effects, solar gains, and physical adjustments to the structure to achieve successful calibration and to inform adjustments to the test procedure for future study.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages45
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Report prepared by Frontier Energy for the Building Technologies Office with NREL technical monitor Conor Dennehy

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5600-85409

Other Report Number

  • DOE/GO-102023-5876


  • building envelope performance
  • co-heating
  • energy model
  • manufactured home
  • model calibration
  • model de-aggregation


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