Evolution of Solid Electrolyte Interphase and Active Material in the Silicon Wafer Model System

Caleb Stetson, Yanli Yin, Andrew Norman, Steven Harvey, Manuel Schnabel, Chunmei Ban, Chun-Sheng Jiang, Steven DeCaluwe, Mowafak Al-Jassim

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19 Scopus Citations


Alloying anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, such as silicon (Si), are an important focus of materials research due to the demand for increased energy density for electric vehicles and stationary grid storage. However, progress towards next generation anode materials has been hindered by poor capacity retention due to the instability of the Si active material and the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). In this work, the evolution of the active Si material and the SEI are simultaneously investigated from the perspective of chemical, structural, morphological, and electronic evolution in the Si wafer model system through its cycling life, using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM). The results illustrate a dynamic evolution of the SEI and active Si material through cycling. Through an improved understanding of evolution of SEI and Si active material within the Si wafer model system, mitigation strategies may be designed to extend the lifetime of Si anodes.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 228946
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Power Sources
StatePublished - 15 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-76585


  • Lithium-ion batteries
  • Scanning probe microscopy
  • Scanning transmission electron microscopy
  • Silicon anode
  • Solid electrolyte interphase
  • Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry


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