Examining CO2 as an Additive for Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation on Silicon Anodes

Emma Hopkins, Sarah Frisco, Ryan Pekarek, Caleb Stetson, Zoey Huey, Steven Harvey, Xiang Li, Baris Key, Chen Fang, Gao Liu, Guang Yang, Glenn Teeter, Nathan Neale, Gabriel Veith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus Citations


We demonstrate that the addition of CO2 to a standard 1.0 M LiPF6 3:7 wt% ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte results in the formation of a thinner insoluble solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is dominated by the presence of LiF. In contrast, cells without CO2 result in a thicker insoluble SEI layer containing more organic constituents. The CO2 is incorporated in the dimethyl carbonate soluble part of the SEI composed primarily of polymeric poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) on the surface of a thin inorganic layer. This combination of properties from CO2 addition provides an improved cycling performance through the reduction of irreversible side reactions, leading to higher coulombic efficiency. The results indicate that CO2 incorporates into the SEI and plays a role similar to additives like fluorinated ethylene carbonate and vinylene carbonate with respect to polymeric components.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number030534
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Electrochemical Society ("ECS"). Published on behalf of ECS by IOP Publishing Limited.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-79179


  • CO2
  • fluorinated ethylene carbonate
  • insoluble solid electrolyte interphase
  • thin inorganic layer
  • vinylene carbonate
  • XPS measurements


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