Experimental Characterization Test of a Grid-Forming Inverter for Microgrid Applications

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Standardized experimental testing protocols for grid forming (GFM) inverters to ensure expected operation under both normal and contingency conditions do not exist. Such protocols increase the confidence of system owner/operators that an inverter deployed in a proposed system will engage in typical behaviors to ensure interoperability with other units and ancillary equipment (e.g. protection equipment). This paper presents systematic and comprehensive test protocols to evaluate the performance of GFM inverters under the following operational configurations: islanded operation, heterogeneous islanded operation (parallel with a synchronous generator), grid-connected operation, and transition operation. A commercial GFM inverter is used to verify the test protocols and to understand the inverter’s performance and functionalities. In particular, required configuration and tuning of the inverter will be explained in the full paper to enrich the testing protocol.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2023
EventIEEE Energy Conversion Congress & Expo 2023 - Nashville
Duration: 29 Oct 20232 Nov 2023


ConferenceIEEE Energy Conversion Congress & Expo 2023

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5D00-85381 for preprint

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-88823


  • black start
  • droop control
  • grid-following inverters
  • grid-forming inverters
  • transient stability


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