Experimental Demonstration of Voltage-Matched Two-Terminal Tandem Minimodules

Kirstin Alberi, James Moore, Kenneth Schmieder, Matthew Lumb, Robert Walters, Eric Armour, Leo Mathew, Rajesh Rao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus Citations


Mechanically stacked tandem solar cells are a potential near-term solution for increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic modules. Practical implementation requires an interconnection approach that maximizes efficiency and minimizes complexity and cost. Connecting the top and bottom cells in a voltage-matched configuration allows two-terminal modules to be fabricated without altering the cell design or processing methods. Here, we experimentally demonstrate two-terminal voltage-matched GaInP2/Si minimodules. The two-terminal minimodules performed just as well as four terminal configurations when voltage-matching requirements were met. The magnitude of the efficiency loss experienced by the voltage-matched minimodule when voltage-matched conditions were not met depends on whether the voltage was constrained by the GaInP2 or Si cells. Monte Carlo simulations also indicate that the two-terminal voltage-matched tandems respond to small cell-to-cell parameter variations in a similar manner as four terminal tandems.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number045504
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Photonics for Energy
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-72940


  • photovoltaics
  • tandem solar cell
  • voltage matched


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