Exploring Dynamic P-Q Capability and Abnormal Operations of Inverter-Based Resources

Himadry Das, Shuhui Li, Bing Lu, Jing Wang, Shahinur Rahman, Xingang Fu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nowadays, inverter-based resources are rapidly growing in electric power systems. On the other side, abnormal inverter operations are also occurring more often. Traditionally, inverter PQ capability charts are employed by electric utility companies to ensure safe and reliable operations of inverter-based resources. However, it is found in this paper that existing inverter PQ capability charts do not address the operating characteristics of an inverter correctly, which can result in irregular and unstable inverter operations. In this paper, a novel study is conducted to investigate inverter PQ capability charts, where constraints that are specific to an inverter are considered. It is found in this paper that the inverter PQ capability charts exhibit a unique dynamic nature under uncertain grid conditions. This dynamic nature has not been considered by the industry in managing, designing, and controlling an inverter as well as in developing international standards for inverter-based resources. Via both electromagnetic transient simulation and hardware experimental investigations, it is found that the dynamic PQ capability nature, together with the limitations of the existing control methods, are the underlying causes of many unusual inverter operations that have been reported in the literature.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1608-1618
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-88720


  • grid-connected filters
  • inverter momentary cessation
  • inverter-based resources
  • PQ capability charts
  • subsynchronous resonance
  • weak grid


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