Fast Determination of Lithium Content in Spent Cathodes for Direct Battery Recycling

Xuemin Li, Fulya Dogan, Yingqi Lu, Christopher Antunes, Ying Shi, Anthony Burrell, Chunmei Ban

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus Citations


Determination of the lithium ion content in cathode materials, which is currently performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP−MS), involves tedious procedures and error-prone preparation. This work introduces a new methodology to quickly determine the lithium content in spent cathode materials (LiNixMnyCozO2, x + y + z = 1, NMC) using a thermalgravimetric analysis, which bypasses the use of ICP−MS and significantly reduces the cost and time required for determining the lithium content. Based on this new method, a new approach is developed to identify spent cathode materials suitable for direct relithiation recycling. Finally, these new methods have been applied to investigate the effectiveness of direct electrochemical−relithiation on recycling the spent cathodes, and provide insights for future development of direct battery materials recycling.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2000073
Number of pages11
JournalAdvanced Sustainable Systems
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. The publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this article, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes only.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-77327


  • cathode recycling
  • composition analysis
  • energy storage
  • layered oxide cathode
  • lithium-ion battery


Dive into the research topics of 'Fast Determination of Lithium Content in Spent Cathodes for Direct Battery Recycling'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this