Fast-Switching Electrochromic Li+-Doped NiO Films by Ultrasonic Spray Deposition

Robert C. Tenent, Dane T. Gillaspie, Alex Miedaner, Philip A. Parilla, Calvin J. Curtis, Anne C. Dillon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus Citations


A low cost, high throughput deposition method for films of nickel oxide (NiO) and lithium-doped nickel oxide with improved electrochromic performance is demonstrated. This method is based on ultrasonic spray deposition of aqueous-based precursor solutions in air at atmospheric pressure, which represents a significant cost savings compared to vacuum deposition methods. The resultant materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and electrochemical measurements. Electrochromic performance is demonstrated with in situ optical transmission measurements during electrochemical characterization. Nickel oxide materials color anodically and are thereby ideally suited to be used as counter electrode for the well-known tungsten oxide (W O3) system in "smart" window applications. The coloration of nickel oxide materials is known to be slow when compared to W O3 and thereby limits the overall response time of a NiO/W O3 tandem device. The analysis of potential step response data shows that our lithium-doped nickel oxide material achieves 90% of its total coloration change in 29 s, which is comparable to reported measurements for W O3. These results significantly mitigate a potential bottleneck to the adoption of metal oxide electrochromic windows not only by demonstrating similar performance between NiO and W O3, but by achieving this result via low cost, highly scalable processing methods.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)H318-H322
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2010

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-590-46529


  • basic sciences
  • materials science


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