Fast Yaw Optimization for Wind Plant Wake Steering Using Boolean Yaw Angles

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5 Scopus Citations


In wind plants, turbines can be yawed into the wind to steer their wakes away from downstream turbines and achieve an overall increase in plant power. Mathematical optimization is typically used to determine the best yaw angles at which to operate the turbines in a plant. In this paper, we present a new heuristic to rapidly determine the yaw angles in a wind plant. In this method, we define the turbine yaw angles as Boolean - either yawed at a predefined angle or nonyawed - as opposed to the typical methods of defining yaw angles as continuous or with fine discretizations. We then optimize which turbines should be yawed with an algorithm that sweeps through the turbines from the most upstream to the most downstream. We demonstrate that our new Boolean optimization method can find turbine yaw angles that perform well compared to a traditionally used gradient-based optimizer for which the yaw angles are defined as continuous. There is less than 0.6% difference in the optimized power between the two optimization methods for randomly placed turbine layouts and less than a 0.6% difference in the optimal annual energy production between the two optimization methods for a real wind farm. Additionally, we show that our new method is much more computationally efficient than the traditional method. For plants with nonzero optimal yaw angles, our new method is generally able to solve for the turbine yaw angles 50-150 times faster, and in some extreme cases up to 500 times faster, than the traditional method.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)741-757
Number of pages17
JournalWind Energy Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Andrew P. J. Stanley et al.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-80674


  • Boolean optimization
  • fast optimization
  • greedy optimization
  • wake steering
  • wind energy
  • yaw control


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