Field Validation of Wake Steering Control with Wind Direction Variability

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13 Scopus Citations


Wake steering is a wind farm control strategy wherein upstream turbines are misaligned with the wind direction to redirect their wakes away from downstream turbines, increasing overall wind plant power. Wake steering is often analyzed assuming steady mean wind directions across the wind farm. However, in practice, the wind direction varies considerably over time because of large-scale weather phenomena. Wind direction variability causes the increase in power production from wake-steering to be less than predicted by steady-state models, but more robust wake-steering strategies can be designed that account for variable wind conditions. This paper compares the achieved yaw offsets and power gains from two different 2-turbine wake-steering experiments at a commercial wind farm with model predictions using the FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State (FLORIS) control-oriented model, assuming both fixed and variable wind directions. The impact of wind direction variability is modeled by including wind direction and yaw uncertainty in the FLORIS calculations. The field results match the trends predicted, assuming wind direction variability. Specifically, the yaw offsets achieved in the intended control regions are lower than desired, resulting in less power gain, while a slight loss in power occurs for wind directions outside of the intended control region because of unintentional yaw misalignment. The agreement between the model and field results suggests that the wind direction variability model can be used to design wake-steering controllers that are more robust to variable wind conditions present in the field.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 012012
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Physics: Conference Series
Issue number1
StatePublished - 3 Mar 2020
EventNorth American Wind Energy Academy, NAWEA 2019 and the International Conference on Future Technologies in Wind Energy 2019, WindTech 2019 - Amherst, United States
Duration: 14 Oct 201916 Oct 2019

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5000-74808 for preprint

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-77193


  • uncertainty
  • wake steering
  • wind direction variability
  • wind plant control


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