Foundations for the Future Power System: Inverter-Based Resource Interconnection Standards

Andy Hoke, Jens Boemer, Babak Badrzadeh, Jason MacDowell, Divya Kurthakoti, Brad Marszalkowski, Mark Meuser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus Citations


As power systems evolve to become reliant on solar, wind, batteries, and other inverter-based resources (IBRs), it is essential that those resources meet certain minimum performance and capability criteria designed to ensure the power system operates stably and reliably. Because those criteria, as enshrined in interconnection standards, take years to develop and are very long lived, they need to account for not only the present state of the power system but also its expected future state over the lifetime of the power plants to which they will apply. In addition, they need to be specific enough to ensure reliability without over specifying and, thereby, impeding innovation. Because power systems are shifting rapidly from a state where IBRs make up a small to medium portion of generation to one where the generation will, at times, come predominantly from IBRs, interconnection standards are especially challenging to develop today. Good interconnection standards can make the power system more reliable and less costly to operate, whereas poorly designed standards can lead to major problems, like the famous German 50.2-Hz problem, which introduced a risk of losing many gigawatts of solar on a frequency excursion and resulted in many IBRs being retrofitted at great cost to mitigate a major system reliability risk. Readying the power system by specifying forward-looking technical minimum functional capabilities for IBRs can be an effective approach to avoid future retrofits.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)42-54
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-90329


  • data models
  • generators
  • HVDC transmission
  • inverter-based resources
  • multiprocessor interconnection
  • power generation
  • power system planning
  • power system reliability
  • power system stability
  • reliability engineering
  • standards
  • trajectory
  • voltage control
  • wind


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