Framework to Develop Time- and Voltage-Dependent Building Load Profiles Using Polynomial Load Models

Andrew Parker, Mhd Alkrch, Kevin James, Ahmad Almaghrebi, Mahmoud Alahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus Citations


The power consumption of buildings over the course of each minute, hour, day and season plays a major role in how this load influences the Electric Power System voltage and frequency, and vice versa. This consumption is based on the building's load component types, efficiencies, and how they consume power and react to changes in real time. Due to this complexity, standard full-building load models are typically voltage-invariant. This paper proposes a novel framework to transform these voltage-invariant building load models into fully time- and voltage-dependent load profiles using available data on the voltage sensitivity of individual load components. While a voltage-dependent building model could theoretically be generated from static load models of every component in a building, this approach faces two challenges: first, load models representing all load components are impractical to develop for all possible load component types; second, building energy consumption is never measured or modeled at the individual component level. The proposed framework compiles available component data in the form of static ZIP load model parameters, and maps them into the end use categories utilized by standard building modeling programs. The voltage sensitivity of each end use category is then bounded by the extrema of the component models within it. This framework is applied to a load profile case study representing the aggregate U.S. residential building stock. In addition to the minimum/maximum conditions, a load profile based on typical load composition and weighted ZIP parameters is generated for the same building stock. The results show that for a 10% drop in voltage, using the least sensitive ZIP parameters, active power is expected to be 3% to 14% lower than nominal, depending on the season and time of day. Using the most sensitive ZIP parameters, the active power is expected to be 9% to 20% lower than nominal, also depending on the season and time of day.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)128328-128344
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5500-79067


  • energy consumption
  • load component
  • Load model
  • load profile
  • ZIP parameters


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