Frequency Nadir Constrained Unit Commitment for High Renewable Penetration Island Power Systems

Xuebo Liu, Xin Fang, Ningchao Gao, Haoyu Yuan, Andy Hoke, Hongyu Wu, Jin Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The process of energy decarbonization in island power systems is accelerated due to the swift integration of inverter-based renewable energy resources (IBRs). The unique features of such systems, including rapid frequency changes resulting from potential generation outages or imbalances due to the unpredictability of renewable power, pose a significant challenge in maintaining the frequency nadir without external support. This paper presents a unit commitment (UC) model with data-driven frequency nadir constraints, including either frequency nadir or minimum inertia requirements, helping to limit frequency deviations after significant generator outages. The constraints are formulated using a linear regression model that takes advantage of real-world, year-long generation scheduling and dynamic simulation data. The efficacy of the proposed UC model is verified through a year-long simulation in an actual island power system using historical weather data. The alternative minimum inertia constraint, derived from actual system operation assumptions, is also evaluated. Findings demonstrate that the proposed frequency nadir constraint notably improves the system's frequency nadir under high photovoltaic (PV) penetration levels, albeit with a slight increase in generation costs, when compared to the alternative minimum inertia constraint.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)141-153
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Open Access Journal of Power and Energy
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-89357


  • frequency nadir
  • island system
  • linear regression
  • renewable integration
  • unit commitment


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