Frequency Response Assessment and Enhancement of the U.S. Power Grids towards Extra-High Photovoltaic Generation Penetrations - An Industry Perspective

Jin Tan, Yingchen Zhang, Yong Liu, Shutang You, Yilu Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus Citations

Abstract

Nonsynchronous generations such as photovoltaics (PVs) are expected to undermine bulk power systems (BPSs)' frequency response at high penetration levels. Though the underlying mechanism has been relatively well understood, the accurate assessment and effective enhancement of the U.S. interconnections, frequency response under extra-high PV penetration conditions remains an issue. In this paper, the industry-provided full-detail interconnection models were further validated by synchrophasor frequency measurements and realistically-projected PV geographic distribution information were used to develop extra-high PV penetration scenarios and dynamic models for the three main U.S. interconnections, including Eastern Interconnection (EI), Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), and Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). Up to 65% instantaneous PV and 15% wind penetration were simulated and the frequency response change trend of each U.S. interconnection due to the increasing PV penetration level were examined. Most importantly, the practical solutions to address the declining frequency response were discussed. This paper will provide valuable guidance for policy makers, utility operators and academic researchers not only in the U.S. but also other countries in the world.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)3438-3449
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Volume33
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2018

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-71056

Keywords

  • bulk power system
  • frequency nadir
  • frequency response
  • inertia
  • PV

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