Frequency Shaping Control for Weakly-Coupled Grid-Forming IBRs

Bala Kameshwar Poolla, Yashen Lin, Andrey Bernstein, Enrique Mallada, Dominic Gross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus Citations


We consider the problem of controlling the frequency of low-inertia power systems via inverter-based resources (IBRs) that are weakly connected to the grid. We propose a novel grid-forming control strategy, the so-called frequency shaping control, that aims to shape the frequency response of synchronous generators (SGs) to load perturbations so as to efficiently arrest sudden frequency drops. Our solution relaxes several existing assumptions in the literature and is able to navigate trade-offs between peak power requirements and maximum frequency deviations. Finally, we analyze the robustness to imperfect knowledge of network parameters, while particularly highlighting the importance of accurate estimation of these parameters.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)937-942
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Control Systems Letters
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-84134


  • frequency-shaping control
  • grid-forming devices
  • Inverter-based resources
  • weakly-coupled networks


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