FTIR, EPMA, Auger, and XPS Analysis of Impurity Precipitates in CdS Films

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Films of CdS grown using chemical bath deposition (CBD) generally yield better devices than purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdSfilms. In this work, we present Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe (EPMA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS), and secondary ion mass spectroscopic (SIMS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films, and show that these differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 102 micron-scaleprecipitates.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages5
StatePublished - 1997
Event26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference - Anaheim, California
Duration: 29 Sep 19973 Oct 1997


Conference26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
CityAnaheim, California

Bibliographical note

Available electronically only

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-530-22966


  • cadmium sulfide solar cells films
  • cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic solar cells modules
  • CdS films
  • copper diselenide
  • photovoltaic
  • solar


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