Fuel Cell Stack Model for Real-Time Simulation of Grid-Connected Applications

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

1 Scopus Citations


Fuel cell stacks coupled with electrolyzers and hydrogen storage sites can be a promising category of distributed energy resources for both grid-connected and stand-alone power systems. However, because of high costs, at-scale hardware testing of fuel cell stacks for grid-connected applications is not economically viable at present. A model-based system that can accurately captures the steady-state and dynamic response of fuel cell stacks over long time periods (hours), is needed. This paper demonstrate a real-time electromagnetic transient model of a megawatt-scale, grid-connected proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack, coupled with a mass-based hydrogen storage system. This model can emulate the electrical steady-state and dynamic response of grid-connected fuel cell stacks. We validate the model using the response of commercial hardware fuel cell stacks and analytical models in the literature - using a digital real-time simulator (RSCAD). The proposed real-time model is then used to simulate cases spanning different time horizons and to design controller-hardware-in-the-loop experiments to evaluate controllers for hydrogen stations.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 2022
Event2022 North American Power Symposium, NAPS 2022 - Salt Lake City, United States
Duration: 9 Oct 202211 Oct 2022


Conference2022 North American Power Symposium, NAPS 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySalt Lake City

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-83506


  • activation potential
  • concentration potential
  • fuel cell modeling
  • grid integration
  • hydrogen storage
  • real-time simulation


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