Fuel Property Effects of a Broad Range of Potential Biofuels on Mixing Control Compression Ignition Engine Performance and Emissions

Jonathan Burton, Jonathan Martin, Gina Fioroni, Teresa Alleman, Cameron Hays, Matthew Ratcliff, Matthew Thorson, Andrew Schmidt, Richard Hallen, Todd Hart, Justin Billing, Samuel Fox, Daniel Gaspar, Junqing Zhu, Camille Kima, Lisa Pfefferle, Charles McEnally, Robert McCormick

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

7 Scopus Citations


Conventional diesel engines will continue to hold a vital role in the heavy- and medium-duty markets for the transportation of goods along with many other uses. The ability to offset traditional diesel fuels with low-net-carbon biofuels could have a significant impact on reducing the carbon footprint of these vehicles. A prior study screened several hundred candidate biofuel blendstocks based on required diesel blendstock properties and identified 12 as the most promising. Eight representative biofuel blendstocks were blended at a 30% volumetric concentration with EPA certification ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and were investigated for emissions and fuel efficiency performance. This study used a single cylinder engine (based on the Ford 6.7L engine) using Conventional Diesel Combustion (CDC), also known as Mixing Control Compression Ignition (MCCI). The density, cetane number, distillation curve and sooting tendency (using the yield sooting index method) of the fuels were measured. Start of injection (SOI) timing and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) sweeps were conducted at three separate speed-load operating points to examine fuel effects on the NOX/soot and NOX/efficiency trade-offs as well as to evaluate EGR tolerance. The results show that the biofuel blends all reduced NOX and soot emissions without penalty to engine efficiency, even improving efficiency for some of the blends at certain points, with one particular blend of polyoxymethylene ethers (POMEs) improving efficiency at all points while drastically reducing soot by 79%.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages18
StatePublished - 6 Apr 2021
EventSAE 2021 WCX Digital Summit - Virtual, Online, United States
Duration: 13 Apr 202115 Apr 2021


ConferenceSAE 2021 WCX Digital Summit
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, Online

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 SAE International; US Department of Energy.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5400-78592

Other Report Number

  • SAE Paper No. 2021-01-0505


  • diesel
  • engine
  • MCCI
  • mixing control compression ignition
  • NOx
  • soot


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