Fully Printed and Integrated Electrolyzer Cells with Additive Manufacturing for High-Efficiency Water Splitting

Gaoqiang Yang, Jingke Mo, Zhenye Kang, Yeshi Dohrmann, Frederick A. List, Johney B. Green, Sudarsanam S. Babu, Feng Yuan Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus Citations


Using additive manufacturing (AM) technology, a fundamental material and structure innovation was proposed to significantly increase the energy efficiency, and to reduce the weight, volume and component quantity of proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells (PEMECs). Four conventional parts (liquid/gas diffusion layer, bipolar plate, gasket, and current distributor) in a PEMEC were integrated into one multifunctional AM plate without committing to tools or molds for the first time. In addition, since the interfacial contact resistances between those parts were eliminated, the comprehensive in-situ characterizations of AM cells showed that an excellent energy efficiency of up to 86.48% was achieved at 2 A/cm2 and 80 °C, and the hydrogen generation rate was increased by 61.81% compared to the conventional cell. More importantly, the highly complex inner structures of the AM integrated multifunctional plates also exhibit the potential to break limitations of conventional manufacture methods for hydrogen generation and to open a door for the development of other energy conversion devices, including fuel cells, solar cells and batteries.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)202-210
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Energy
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-4A00-71060


  • 3D printing
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Hydrogen energy
  • Integrated electrolyzer cell
  • Multifunctional materials
  • Proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells
  • Water splitting


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