Fundamentals of Three-Terminal Tandem Solar Cells: a Comprehensive Taxonomy

Emily Warren, William McMahon, Michael Rienacker, Kaitlyn VanSant, Riley Whitehead, Robby Peibst, Adele Tamboli

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


Three-terminal tandem (3TT) solar cells can overcome some of the limitations of two- and four-terminal tandem designs. However, the coupled nature of the cells adds a degree of complexity to the devices themselves and the ways that their performance can be measured and reported. To facilitate understanding, we have developed a taxonomy which encompasses all types of 3TT devices, enabling a common nomenclature for discussing devices and performance. Once the physical devices, contact nodes, and loading circuitry have been self-consistently described, it becomes apparent that a wide range of 3TT devices share a common set of design and operating principles.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages3
StatePublished - 14 Jun 2020
Event47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2020 - Calgary, Canada
Duration: 15 Jun 202021 Aug 2020


Conference47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5900-75934


  • 3T Solar Cell
  • Multijunction
  • Tandem
  • Three Terminal


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