Geospatial Characterization of Low-Temperature Heating and Cooling Demand in the United States

Research output: NRELPresentation


Geothermal resources at temperatures below 150 degrees C have great potential as energy sources for various direct-use applications including heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings. This study geospatially quantifies U.S. heating and cooling demand in residential, commercial, and manufacturing sectors; heating demand in the agricultural sector; and cooling demand in data centers at the county level through end-use energy consumption, expenditure, and commissioned power analyses. Heating and cooling demand in the residential sector was estimated using energy consumption data obtained from the U.S. Energy Information Administration accounting for different U.S. climate zones. For commercial sector analysis, the end-use major fuel energy intensity at the census division level was disaggregated to the county level with respect to principal building activities. Heating and cooling demand analysis for the manufacturing sector was based on end-use energy consumption for direct-use total process categorized by the North America Industry Classification System. Fuel expenditures in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Farm Production Expenditures were examined for heating demand analysis in the agricultural sector, particularly for the greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture production category. Lastly, commissioned power for data centers in the United States were explored for cooling demand analysis. Results indicated a significant fraction of U.S. primary energy consumption is used for low-temperature heating and cooling applications. Heating and cooling demand in residential and commercial sectors is significantly affected by the number of housing units and climate zone designations, while heating and cooling demand in manufacturing and agricultural sectors and data centers are mainly dependent on the number of facilities and their locations. Maps were generated visualizing where heating and cooling demand is high and, overlain with geothermal resource maps, can indicate locations where geothermal energy can supply this heating and cooling demand.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages19
StatePublished - 2023

Publication series

NamePresented at the 48th Stanford Geothermal Workshop, 6-8 February 2023, Stanford, California

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-5700-85195


  • cooling demand
  • direct use
  • end-use energy consumption
  • geospatial
  • geothermal
  • heating demand
  • low temperature


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