Gradient-Based Multi-Area Distribution System State Estimation

Xinyang Zhou, Zhiyuan Liu, Yi Guo, Changhong Zhao, Jianqiao Huang, Lijun Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus Citations


The increasing distributed and renewable energy resources and controllable devices in distribution systems make fast distribution system state estimation (DSSE) crucial in system monitoring and control. We consider a large multi-phase distribution system and formulate DSSE as a weighted least squares (WLS) problem. We divide the large distribution system into smaller areas of subtree structure, and by jointly exploring the linearized power flow model and the network topology, we propose a gradient-based multi-area algorithm to exactly and efficiently solve the WLS problem. The proposed algorithm enables distributed and parallel computation of the state estimation problem without compromising any performance. Numerical results on a 4,521-node test feeder show that the designed algorithm features fast convergence and accurate estimation results. Comparison with traditional Gauss-Newton method shows that the proposed method has much better performance in distribution systems with a limited amount of reliable measurement. The real-time implementation of the algorithm tracks time-varying system states with high accuracy.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number9122052
Pages (from-to)5325-5338
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2010-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-76047


  • distributed algorithm
  • Distribution system state estimation
  • large system simulation
  • multi-area state estimation
  • multi-phase system


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