Grid Ancillary Services Using Electrolyzer-Based Power-to-Gas Systems with Increasing Renewable Penetration

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Increasing penetrations of renewable-based generation have led to a decrease in the bulk power system inertia and an increase in intermittency and uncertainty in generation. Energy storage is considered to be an important factor to help manage renewable energy generation at greater penetrations. Hydrogen is a viable long-term storage alternative. This paper analyzes and presents use cases for leveraging electrolyzer-based power-to-gas systems for electric grid support. The paper also discusses some grid services that may favor the use of hydrogen-based storage over other forms such as battery energy storage. Real-time controls are developed, implemented and demonstrated using a power-hardware-in-the-loop(PHIL) setup with a 225-kW proton-exchange-membrane electrolyzer stack. These controls demonstrate frequency and voltage support for the grid for different levels of renewable penetration (0%, 25%, and 50%). A comparison of the results shows the changes in respective frequencies and voltages as seen as different buses as a result of support from the electrolyzers and notes the impact on hydrogen production as a result of grid support. Finally, the paper discusses the practical nuances of implementing the tests with physical hardware, such as inverter/electrolyzer efficiency, as well as the related constraints and opportunities.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number100308
Number of pages11
Journale-Prime - Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-76806


  • Ancillary services
  • Electrolyzers
  • Frequency support
  • Grid integration
  • H2@SCALE
  • Power-hardware-in-the-loop
  • Power-to-Gas systems
  • Voltage support


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