Grid-Forming Frequency Shaping Control for Low-Inertia Power Systems

Yan Jiang, Andrey Bernstein, Petr Vorobev, Enrique Mallada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus Citations


As power systems transit to a state of high renewable penetration, little or no presence of synchronous generators makes the prerequisite of well-regulated frequency for grid-following inverters unrealistic. Thus, there is a trend to resort to grid-forming inverters which set frequency directly. We propose a novel grid-forming frequency shaping control that is able to shape the aggregate system frequency dynamics into a first-order one with the desired steady-state frequency deviation and Rate of Change of Frequency (RoCoF) after a sudden power imbalance. The no overshoot property resulting from the first-order dynamics allows the system frequency to monotonically move towards its new steady-state without experiencing frequency Nadir, which largely improves frequency security. We prove that our grid-forming frequency-shaping control renders the system internally stable under mild assumptions. The performance of the proposed control is verified via numerical simulations on a modified Icelandic Power Network test case.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number9292997
Pages (from-to)1988-1993
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Control Systems Letters
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-79026


  • Control of networks
  • power systems


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