Grid-Forming Frequency Shaping Control for Low-Inertia Power Systems

Yan Jiang, Andrey Bernstein, Petr Vorobev, Enrique Mallada

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

7 Scopus Citations


As power systems transit to a state of high renewable penetration, little or no presence of synchronous generators makes the prerequisite of well-regulated frequency for grid-following inverters unrealistic. Thus, there is a trend to resort to grid-forming inverters which set frequency directly. We propose a novel grid-forming frequency shaping control that is able to shape the aggregate system frequency dynamics into a first-order one with the desired steady-state frequency deviation and Rate of Change of Frequency (RoCoF) after a sudden power imbalance. The no overshoot property resulting from the first-order dynamics allows the system frequency to monotonically move towards its new steady-state without experiencing frequency Nadir, which largely improves frequency security. We prove that our grid-forming frequency-shaping control renders the system internally stable under mild assumptions. The performance of the proposed control is verified via numerical simulations on a modified Icelandic Power Network test case.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 25 May 2021
Event2021 American Control Conference, ACC 2021 - Virtual, New Orleans, United States
Duration: 25 May 202128 May 2021


Conference2021 American Control Conference, ACC 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, New Orleans

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Automatic Control Council.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-80786


  • control systems
  • inverters
  • numerical simulation
  • power system dynamics
  • synchronous generators


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