Grid-Forming Inverters: Project Demonstrations and Pilots

Babak Badrzadeh, Carmen Cardozo, Masaya Hishida, Shahil Shah, Iftekharul Huq, Nilesh Modi, Anthony Morton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus Citations


Power system operators around the world are pushing the limits of integrating inverter-based resources (IBRs) to very high levels, approaching 100% instantaneous penetration under certain operating conditions. This often applies to smaller power systems with very little or no ac interconnections to other neighboring regions or sometimes to fringes of large balancing areas, such as Denmark or Portugal, within the mainland European power system. These jurisdictions have identified the potential of grid-forming (GFM) technology as a key enabler to support the energy transition with very few or no synchronous generators online. Until recently, practical applications of GFM inverters were limited to microgrids and isolated grids and in smaller grid applications on the order of a few tens of megawatts (MW).
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)66-77
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-90350


  • Australia
  • energy management
  • Europe
  • frequency measurement
  • grid-forming
  • inverter-based resources
  • inverters
  • microgrids
  • power grids
  • power system measurements
  • power system stability
  • project management
  • synchronization
  • synchronous generators
  • time-frequency analysis


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