Growth Kinetics during Kesterite Coevaporation

Wan Ching Hsu, Ingrid Repins, Carolyn Beall, Glenn Teeter, Clay Dehart, Bobby To, Yang Yang, Rommel Noufi

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

8 Scopus Citations


Kesterite solar cells have been considered as earth-abundant substitute to chalcopyrites. NREL's 9.2% co-evaporated kesterite solar cell is inspired by the copper-rich growth of co-evaporated chalcopyrites. The excess Cu xSey is believed to conduct liquid-phase assisted grain growth and hence improves the device performance. The effect of the deposition sequence on film growth, morphology, and device performance, are explored in this study. At high deposition temperature, the expected binary precursors of Cu2ZnSnSe4 include CuxSey and ZnSe but not SnSex. Because SnSex is volatile, the sticking of Sn occurs only if the adsorbed Sn encounters CuxSey and ZnSe and the formation of kesterite takes place. Otherwise, SnSex will be re-evaporated. Here we designed deposition recipes to create precursor films with different ratio between ZnSe/CuxSey/as-formed kesterite in the first stage, and end the deposition with the same end-point composition. First, it is of interest if the existence of CuxSe y phase provides the opportunity of grain growth analogous to co-evaporating CIGS. Second, by observing the evolution of the substrate temperature during deposition, the reaction progression may be better realized. Third, this series of depositions with different sequence also tells us the saturated Zn level relative to Cu and Sn, and where the excess portion of Zn stays in the film. Finally, the device performance above 9% is briefly presented

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages4
StatePublished - 2012
Event38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2012 - Austin, TX, United States
Duration: 3 Jun 20128 Jun 2012


Conference38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2012
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityAustin, TX

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5200-57527


  • coevaporation
  • CZTS
  • kesterite
  • solar cells
  • Thin film


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