Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development

Robert Prohaska, Kenneth Kelly, Michael Lammert, Arnaud Konan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus Citations


In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL’s Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2016-01-8135
Pages (from-to)331-338
Number of pages8
JournalSAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5400-66649 for preprint

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-68314


  • drayage
  • drive cycle
  • duty cycle
  • heavy-duty
  • port


Dive into the research topics of 'Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this