Hierarchical Control of Megawatt-Scale Charging Stations for Electric Trucks with Distributed Energy Resources

Ahmed Mohamed, Myungsoo Jun, Rasel Mahmud, Partha Mishra, Serena Patel, Isaac Tolbert, Shriram Santhanagopalan, Andrew Meintz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus Citations


Electrifying medium- and heavy-duty trucks is critical to decarbonizing the transportation sector. Energy needs of electric trucks will likely require megawatt-scale charging stations, which could significantly stress the electric distribution grid. Distributed energy resources (DER) can alleviate this stress and reduce charging costs with proper management. To that end, this work develops a hierarchical predictive control algorithm for future multi-port megawatt-scale charging stations that can provide real-time energy management for stations, decide charging rates, dispatch energy storage system (ESS), and provide grid voltage support. We integrate three algorithmic components: (i) an energy management optimization (EMO) that provides supervisory control to DER assets and charging loads at minute scale, (ii) a real-time energy management system (RT-EMS) that heuristically compensates for fast disturbances at sub-second scale, and (iii) a model predictive control (MPC)-based battery management system (BMS) that communicates future charging demands to the EMO, to manage the overall megawatt-scale site. Validation in a controller hardware-in-the-loop (CHIL) environment shows that the hierarchical controller can reduce the total energy consumption from the grid by approximately 28% compared to an uncontrolled case for the station configuration in this paper, without impacting charging time.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)4951-4963
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-78167


  • Batteries
  • battery management system (BMS)
  • Charging stations
  • distributed energy resources
  • electric truck
  • Electrodes
  • energy management
  • extreme fast charging
  • Mathematical models
  • Optimization
  • optimization
  • secondary control
  • State of charge
  • Transportation


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