Hierarchical Distribution System Adaptive Restoration with Diverse Distributed Energy Resources

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23 Scopus Citations


Distributed energy resources (DERs) can be utilized as alternative power sources for fast service recovery in cases of distribution system outages. However, the diverse characteristics and stochastic nature of DERs impose challenges on the optimal operation of diverse resources during the restoration phase. In this article, we introduce a hierarchical structure to coordinate distribution system entities and propose an adaptive restoration strategy to sustain a reliable power supply to outage loads in an unbalanced distribution system utilizing DERs. An efficient system reconfiguration model is developed to guarantee the radiality of restoration islands. The flexibility of DERs is evaluated by a novel method that focuses on the cumulative energy consumption, the superiority of which is also proven. Model predictive control (MPC) is adopted to enable the adjustment of system topology and DER operation strategies based on up-to-date data. The performance of the proposed restoration model is validated on a modified IEEE 123-bus test system. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed novel flexibility assessment and the MPC-based adaptive restoration strategy are verified through comparative studies.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number9295416
Pages (from-to)1347-1359
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2010-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-78653


  • Adaptive restoration
  • controllable loads
  • demand response
  • distributed energy resources
  • distribution system restoration
  • model predictive control


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