Hierarchical Transparent Back Contacts for Bifacial CdTe PV

B. Edward Sartor, Teng Zhang, Christopher Muzzillo, Chungho Lee, Ryan Muzzio, Yury Gogotsi, Matthew Reese, Andre Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A hierarchical transparent back contact leveraging an AlGaOX passivating layer, Ti3C2TX MXene with a high work function, and a transparent cracked film lithography (CFL) templated nanogrid is demonstrated on copper-free cadmium telluride (CdTe) devices. AlGaOX improves device open-circuit voltage but reduces the fill factor when using a CFL-templated metal contact. Including a Ti3C2TX interlayer improves the fill factor, lowers detrimental Schottky barriers, and enables metallization with CFL by providing transverse conduction into the nanogrid. The bifacial performance of an AlGaOX/Ti3C2TX/CFL gold contact is evaluated, reaching 19.5% frontside efficiency and 2.8% backside efficiency under 1-sun illumination for a copper-free, group-V doped CdTe device. Under dual illumination, device power generation reached 200 W/m2 with 0.1 sun backside illumination.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1617-1623
Number of pages7
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-89613


  • absorption
  • electrical conductivity
  • gold
  • layers
  • two dimensional materials


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